In this paper, we examine how energy consumption differs among different residential housing types. Most previous research suggests that apartments are less energy efficient than single-family homes, whether owner-occupied or rental. In addition, principal-agent problems in rental housing are said to lead to greater energy consumption by renters. Using microdata from the Residential Energy Consumption Survey, we examined the impact of both structure type and tenure on energy usage. Our results show that multifamily homes are more energy efficient than single-family homes, and that it is not tenure, but rather whether the resident pays for energy directly that affects energy usage.
Authors: Mark Obrinsky and Caitlin Walter]]>
In this paper, we examine energy storage, peak load minimization, and demand response and how these new technologies are allowing commercial building owners to capitalize these value streams by implementing new technologies. The use of smart grids in commercial buildings can reduce total carbon emissions, placing building owners in an advantageous position should a carbon tax ever be imposed on emissions. Owners of commercial buildings should seriously consider smart microgrids that combine energy production, storage, and the ability to isolate and insulate the building from the grid should a power disruption occur. Smart and micro grids add positive value to commercial buildings because they provide (1) peak load management (shaving costs), (2) integrate renewable energy (reducing emissions and costs), and provide (3) instant back-up power on demand giving the building added reliability, safety, and the ability to continue operating under otherwise challenging circumstances.
Authors: Stephen Sewalk, Norm G. Miller, Sunny Liston, and David Wenzhong Gao]]>
Preface, acknowledgements, introduction and description of papers included in this volume of JOSRE.]]>
Focusing on the voluntary LEED and ENERGY STAR environmental certification schemes in the United States, we investigate whether price premiums exist across all building value categories or are localized to specific value segments. We find that the largest value building segment does not demonstrate any price premiums, while the smallest value categories do. The concentrated supply of eco-labeled offices in large, high-quality buildings likely contributes to this phenomenon. Results from hedonic and quantile regressions indicate that price premiums for eco-certified real estate assets may not be uniformly distributed across value segments and that price premiums found in the literature are concentrated in smaller and mid-tier value buildings. This may be due to the comparatively lower market penetration of eco-certification schemes in these segments.
Authors: Spenser Robinson and Pat McAllister]]>
The rapid acceptance of green buildings internationally has led to awareness of green building features and initiatives (GBFIs) in the South African property industry; however, among South African valuers, it seems the awareness is still in its infancy. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with valuers of varying degrees of experience in Cape Town, online surveys were completed by a sample of South African valuers, and a valuation simulation was conducted to determine the impact of GBFIs. The findings indicate that even though South African valuers have limited knowledge of green buildings, they recognize the importance of incorporating GBFIs in the valuation process.
Authors: Saul Nurick, Karen Le Jeune, Emma Dawber, Ryan Flowers, and Jennifer Wilkinson]]>
In this study, we examine the operational challenges of existing green building related features / systems to develop hypotheses about factors that will increase the demand for green buildings. We test these hypotheses by examining the potential green building advantages that will influence users’ adoption of green practices and their willingness to pay. The sample included 75 commercial and industrial property users in Ibadan, Nigeria. The findings show that respondents face significant operational challenges with existing building features / systems, especially energy and water. Potential advantages relevant to business processes (reduced resource utilization, quality of work life, and ability to sell to pro-environmental customers) have a greater impact on green building demand relative to other advantages. Most respondents were willing to pay between a 1% and a 10% premium for upgrading to green building. Overall, public enlightenment, awareness, and better enabling green building practice can be improved in Nigeria.
Authors: A. Olaleye, T.O. Ayodele, and M.O. Komolafe]]>
While many researchers have analyzed the obstacles to the diffusion of innovation in building construction, little empirical evidence has been gathered about the factors associated with U.S. homebuilders’ adoption of innovative building products. In this paper, we develop a theory- driven diffusion of innovation conceptual model of homebuilders’ adoption of high performance building product innovations. We are among the first to operationalize a regression model to demonstrate an application of the model using a large dataset from the National Association of Homebuilders. Model results indicate that builders’ selections of high performance products are influenced by internal or firm attributes, external attributes, as well as the attributes of the high performance innovations. These results suggest that the adoption rates of future innovative building products will likely be influenced by product and climate and have the potential to be amplified by bandwagon effects.
Authors: Andrew R. Sanderford, Matthew J. Keefe, C. Theodore Koebel, and Andrew P. McCoy]]>
Generally accepted real estate valuation theory, augmented by ample empirical evidence, supports the notion of significant impacts on prices of residential properties near highways. Houses adjacent to highways are exposed to potentially increased traffic noise, although these homeowners may benefit from increased accessibility to highway systems. This study is prompted by a massive new highway construction project (25 miles at a cost of $1.5 billion over a nine-year period) that will complete a 110-mile beltway around the Orlando, Florida metropolitan area. Using observed prices of houses near existing highways, this study provides insights into the potential effects of the new highway on planned and existing houses in this market. The results indicate significant price discounts for houses adjacent to highways, houses near high-traffic highways, and houses farther from highway on- ramps, but no significant impact related to distances from houses to highways or sound barrier walls.
Authors: Marcus T. Allen, Grant W. Austin, and Mushfiq Swaleheen]]>
This is the first comprehensive cost-benefit analysis of Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) buildings certified within the higher education sector. Sixteen institutions of higher education (IHEs) were surveyed with the findings focused on the upfront green premium and down the line energy savings. The net present value (NPV), internal rate of return (IRR), and discounted payback period were calculated to determine the financial feasibility of LEED certified buildings within the higher education sector. The findings indicate mixed results when looking at the projects from both an upfront construction cost and full lifecycle perspective.
Author: Erin A. Hopkins]]>
We investigate the current status of sustainable value integration in Colorado’s real estate markets, an area with limited current / historical value attributed to sustainability. The property appraiser has an opportunistic position to influence stakeholders and potentially increase demand for sustainable building. The appraisal process, necessary inputs, and rules and regulations were studied using an exploratory sequential mixed methods approach to conduct a cross-sectional study through archival research, survey distribution, and the collection of quantitative and qualitative data. We confirm that Colorado’s real estate appraisers are increasingly integrating sustainable building features in appraisal assignments, despite existing challenges.
Authors: Laura Bently, Scott Glick, and Kelly Strong]]>